Day, NJ, Cumming, SR, Dunfield, KE, Johstone, JF, Mack, MC, Turetsky, MR, Walker, XJ, White, A, Baltzer, JL. Edaphic factors and disturbance severity reduce richness and alter composition of soil fungal communities: implications for ecosystem resilience. Global Change Biology, in review.
Walker, XJ, Rogers, BM, Baltzer, JL, Cumming, SR, Day, NJ, Goetz, S, Johnstone, JF, Schuur, EAG, Turetsky, MR, Mack, MC (2018) Cross-scale controls on carbon emissions from boreal mega-fires of the Northwest Territories, Canada. Global Change Biology, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14287.
Pappas, C, Matheny, AM, Baltzer, JL, Barr, A, Black, TA, Bohrer, G, Detto, M, Maillet, J, Roy, A, Sonnentag, O, and Stephens, J (2018) Boreal tree hydrodynamics: asynchronous, diverging, yet complementary. Tree Physiology, tpy043, https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpy043.
Peters, RL, Fonti, P, Frank, DC, Poyatos, R, Pappas, C, Kahmen, A, Carraro, V, Prendin, AL, Schneider, L, Baltzer, JL, Baron-Gafford, GA, Dietrich, L, Heinrich, I, RL, Minor, Sonnentag, O, Steppe, K (2018) Quantification of uncertainties in conifer sap flow measured with the thermal dissipation method. New Phytologist, https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.15241.
Warren, RK, Pappas, C, Helbig, M, Chasmer, L, Patankar, R, Berg, A, Baltzer, J, Quinton, WL, Sonnentag, O (2018) Minor contribution of black spruce transpiration to evapotranspiration in boreal permafrost peatlands. Ecohydrology, https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.1975.
Lutz, JA, Furniss, TJ, Johnson, DJ, Davies, SJ, Allen, D, Alonso, A, Anderson-Teixeira, K, Baltzer, J, et al. (2018) Global importance of large-diameter trees in forests. Global Ecology and Biogeography, https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12747.
Walker, XJ, Baltzer, JL, Cummings, SR, Day, NJ, Johnstone, JF, Rogers, BM, Solvik, K, Turetsky, MR, Mack, MC (2018) Soil organic layer combustion in boreal black spruce and jack pine stands of the Northwest Territories, Canada. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 27: 125-134.
Sniderhan, AE, McNickle, GG, Baltzer, JL (2018) Assessing local adaptation vs. plasticity under different resource conditions in seedlings of a dominant boreal tree species. AoB Plants, 10: ply004 **Editors Choice**
McNickle, GG, Lamb, EG, Lavender, M, Cahill, JF, Schamp, BS, Siciliano, SD, Condit, R, Hubbell, SP, Baltzer, JL (2017) Checkerboard score–area relationships reveal spatial scales of plant community structure. Oikos. doi:10.1111/oik.04620
Day, NJ, Carrière, S, Baltzer, JL (2017) Pre-fire forest type drives fine-scale temporal dynamics in post-fire boreal understory communities. Forest Ecology and Management, 401: 264-272.
Turetsky, MR, Baltzer, JL, Johnstone, JF, Mack, MM, McCann, K, Schurr, T (2017) Loss of legacies, filling empty niches, and embracing transient responses: Key challenges for the future of northern ecosystem science. Ecosystems, 20: 23.
Merchant, MA, Berg, AA, Baltzer, JL, Quinton, WL, Chasmer, LE (2017) The contribution of C-band SAR multipolarization data and polarimetric decompositions to subarctic boreal peatland mapping. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 10: 1467-1482.
Sniderhan, AE, Baltzer, JL (2016) Growth dynamics of black spruce (Picea mariana) in a rapidly-thawing discontinuous permafrost peatland. Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences, 121: 2988–3000
McNickle, GG, Gonzalez-Meler, MA, Lynch, DJ, Baltzer, JL, Brown, JS (2016) The world’s biomes and primary production as a foraging game played by plants. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 283: 20161993.
McNickle, GG, Wallace, C, Baltzer, JL (2016) Why do mosses have height? Moss production as a tragedy of the commons game. Evolutionary Ecology Research, 17: 1-19.
Falster, DS and 90 other authors (2015) BAAD: a Biomass And Allometry Database for woody plants. Ecology, 96: 1445-1445.
Patankar, R, Quinton, WL, Hasyashi, M, and Baltzer, JL (2015) Sap flow responses to seasonal thaw and permafrost degradation in a subarctic boreal peatland. Trees – Structure and Function, 29: 129-142.
Marshall, KE and Baltzer, JL (2015) Indirect effects of abiotic stress drive a reverse species richness latitudinal gradient in sub-arctic forests. Ecology, 96: 461-470.
Anderson-Teixeira, KJ and 106 other authors. (2015) CTFS-ForestGEO: A worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change. Global Change Biology, 21: 528-549.
Chasmer, L, Hopkinson, C, Veness, T, Quinton, W, and Baltzer, J (2014) A decision-tree classification for low-lying complex land cover types within the zone of discontinuous permafrost. Remote Sensing of Environment, 143: 73-84.
Baltzer, JL, Veness, T, Sniderhan, AE, Chasmer, LE, and Quinton, WL (2014) Forests on thawing permafrost: fragmentation, edge effects, and net forest loss. Global Change Biology, 20: 824-834.
Quinton, WL, and Baltzer, JL (2013) Changing surface water systems in the discontinuous permafrost zone: implications to stream flow. Cold and Mountain Region Hydrological Systems Under Climate Change: Towards Improved Projections. Proceedings of H02, IAHS-IAPSO-IASPEI Assembly, Gothenburg, Sweden. IAHS Publication 360, 85-92.
Baltzer, JL, Patankar, R, Downey, A, and Quinton, WL (2013) Impacts of seasonal thaw and permafrost degradation on Picea mariana root function in a subarctic boreal peatland. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Sap Flow. Acta Horticulturae 991: 141-148.
Patankar, R, Quinton, WL, and Baltzer, JL (2013) Permafrost-driven differences in habitat quality determine plant responses to gall-forming mites. Journal of Ecology, 101: 1042-1052.
Williams, TJ, Quinton, WL, and Baltzer, JL (2013) Linear disturbances on discontinuous permafrost: implications for thaw-induced changes to land cover and drainage patterns. Environmental Research Letters, 8: 025006. Highlighted in Environmental Research Letters
Quinton, WL and Baltzer, JL (2013) The active-layer hydrology of a peat plateau with thawing permafrost (Scotty Creek, Canada). Hydrogeology Journal 21: 201-220.
Schurman, JS and Baltzer, JL (2012) Environmental correlates of tree species distributions vary among age classes in a northern temperate forest. Plant Ecology 10: 1621-1632.
Baltzer, JL and Davies, SJ (2012) Rainfall seasonality and pest pressure as determinants of tropical tree species’ distributions. Ecology and Evolution 2: 2682-2694.
2011 and earlier
Manning, JL and Baltzer, JL (2011) Impacts of black bear baiting on Acadian forest dynamics – An indirect edge effect? Forest Ecology and Management 262: 838-844.
Baltzer, JL and Thomas, SC (2010) A second dimension to the leaf economics spectrum predicts edaphic habitat association in a tropical forest. PLoS ONE 5: e13163.
Baltzer JL, Grégoire DM, Noor SMN, Bunyavejchewin S and Davies SJ (2009). Coordination of foliar and wood anatomical traits contributes to tropical tree distributions along the Malay-Thai Peninsula. American Journal of Botany 96: 2214-2223.
Baltzer JL, Davies SJ, Bunyavejchewin, S and Noor, NSM (2008) The role of desiccation tolerance in determining tree species distributions along the Malay-Thai Peninsula. Functional Ecology 22: 221-231.
Baltzer JL and Thomas SC (2007) Determinants of whole-plant light requirements in Bornean rain forest trees. Journal of Ecology 95: 1205-1221.
Baltzer JL, Davies SJ, Kassim AR, Noor NSM and LaFrankie JV (2007) Geographic distributions in tropical trees: can geographic range predict performance and habitat association in co-occurring tree species? Journal of Biogeography 34: 1916-1926. Highlighted in Journal of Biogeography
Baltzer JL and Thomas SC (2007) Physiological and morphological correlates of whole plant light compensation point in temperate deciduous tree seedlings. Oecologia 153: 209-223.
Baltzer JL, Thomas SC, Nilus R and Burslem DFRP (2005) Edaphic specialization in tropical rain forest trees: Physiological correlates and responses to reciprocal transplantation. Ecology 86: 3063-3077.
Baltzer JL and Thomas SC (2004) Leaf optical responses to resource availability in five temperate tree species. American Journal of Botany 92: 214–223.
VanderKloet SP, Baltzer JL, Appleby JH, Evans RC and Stewart DT (2004) A re-examination of the taxonomic boundaries of Symphysia (Ericaceae). Taxon 53: 91-98.
Baltzer JL, Reekie EG, Hewlin HL, Taylor PD and Boates JS (2002) Impact of flower harvesting on the salt marsh plant, Limonium carolinianum. Canadian Journal of Botany 80: 841-851.
Baltzer JL, Hewlin HL, Reekie EG, Taylor PD and Boates JS (2002) The impact of flower harvesting on seedling recruitment in Sea Lavender (Limonium carolinianum). Rhodora 104: 280- 295.
Reekie EG, Budge SM and Baltzer JL (2002) The shape of the trade-off function between reproduction and future performance in plants. Canadian Journal of Botany 80: 140-150.
Thomas SC and Baltzer JL (2002) Tropical Forests. Invited article for the Encyclopedia of Life Sciences (http://www.els.net/). MacMillan Reference Limited, London, U.K.
Baltzer J, Day N, Walker X (2016) Establishment of a permanent sample plot network to enhance our understanding of forest and permafrost dynamics following a severe fire year – a report on 2015 activities. Government of the Northwest Territories (GNWT) Publication.
Day NJ, Carrière S, Baltzer JL (2016) Pre-fire forest type drives long-term changes in understory plant communities post-fire, Taiga Shield, Northwest Territories. GNWT Publication.
Kiem, D., Marsh, P, Baltzer, J, Wallace, C et al. (2016) Climate change research in our own backyard. Tuksaayatsak Magazine, Spring 2016 issue. **This is an Inuvik-based magazine focused on issues in the Inuvialuit, which is widely read locally.
Quinton, WL, Adams, JR, Baltzer, JL, Berg, AA, Craig, JR, Johnson, E (2016) Permafrost ecosystems in transition: Understanding and predicting hydrological and ecological change in the southern Taiga Plains, Northeastern British Columbia and Southwestern Northwest Territories. in Geoscience BC Summary of Activities 2015, Geoscience BC, Report 2016-1, p. 89–94.
Baltzer, J and Johnstone, J (2015) The 2014 NWT Fires – Developing a Research Framework. Workshop report. 12-13 January 2015, Explorer Hotel, Yellowknife, NWT.
2011 and earlier
Manning, JL and Baltzer, JL (2011) Tree Health in Permanent Sample Plots in Fundy National Park. Technical Report for the Fundy National Park.
Taylor, M and Baltzer, JL (2010) Exploratory Analyses of Ground Vegetation Monitoring Data from Fundy National Park: Preliminary Findings and Recommendations for Future Monitoring. Technical Report for the Fundy National Park.
Baltzer J, Cumming S, Johnstone J, McIntire E, Schmiegelow F, and Spring A (2016) Impacts of wildfire extent and severity on caribou habitat: from woodland to barren ground. Invited presentation, Cumulative Impacts Monitoring Program Dehcho Regional Results Workshop. Fort Simpson, NT
Baltzer, JL (2015) The changing face of Canada’s boreal forest. 2015 Third Age of Learning Speaker Series – The Canadian Arctic: History, politics and environment. Waterloo, ON. Invited Lecture. http://www.tal-kw.ca/lectures/W2015_BrochureWeb.pdf
Marsh, P, Quinton, W, Baltzer, J (2015) Understanding the challenges confronting the Arctic: Water-Northern Ecosystems-Economy-Communities. Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI), Future of the Arctic Round Table, CIGI Campus, Waterloo, ON.
Baltzer, J, Quinton, W, and Sonnentag, O (2014) Boreal forests in permafrost landscapes: changing structure and function in response to climate warming. American Geophysical Union Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.
Baltzer, J (2014) Trees, shrubs, and pests: potential feedbacks of changing montane vegetation on permafrost conditions. Workshop on Mountain Permafrost, Whistler, BC.
Baltzer, J, Quinton, W, Berg, A, and Marsh, P (2014) Assessing landscape change in high latitude ecosystems. Interdisciplinary Workshop on Geospatial Computing, Kitchener, ON
Baltzer, J (2013) Forests on permafrost: responses to climate warming. Keynote Address for the Canadian Society for Plant Biologists Eastern Regional Meeting, Toronto, ON.
Baltzer, J and Quinton, W (2013) Permafrost thaw and landscape change in the Dehcho. Pan-Territorial Permafrost Workshop, Yellowknife, NT.
Quinton, W and Baltzer, J (2013) Changing surface water systems in the discontinuous permafrost zone: implications to stream flow. Joint Assembly IAHS–IAPSO–IAPSEI, Gothenberg, Sweden.
Wilkie, MP, Baltzer, J, Quinton, W, et al. (2013) Effects of permafrost thaw and land use on toxicants and fish health in the Dehcho. Return to Country Foods Workshop, Kakisa, NT.
Baltzer, J, Quinton, W and Marsh, P (2012) Rapid changes in the Northwest Territories: key issues and a partnership-based approach. NASA Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) Workshop. Boulder, CO, USA.
Quinton, W, Baltzer, J, Johnson, E, and Hayashi, M (2012) Water resource implications of widespread permafrost thaw in Northeastern BC. 6th BC Unconventional Gas Technical Forum. Victoria, BC, Canada.
Baltzer, JL, Marsh, P and Quinton, WL (2012) Permafrost thaw-induced land cover change: implications for the resource sector. Federal Interdepartmental Program of Energy Research and Development (PERD) Annual Meeting, Calgary, AB, Canada.
Baltzer, JL (2012) Bugs, bears and permafrost: forest responses to global change from the tropics to the subarctic. Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON.
Quinton, WL, Hayashi, M, Baltzer, J and Craig, J (2011). Runoff from wetland-dominated terrains with thawing permafrost. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Baltzer, JL (2011) Determinants of distribution in tropical trees: the role of drought vs. pests. Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharine’s, ON.
Baltzer, JL (2010) Vegetation monitoring in the Fundy Biosphere Reserve. UNESCO Fundy Biosphere Reserve Research Working Group, University of Moncton, Moncton, NB.
Baltzer, JL, Bunyavejchewin, S, Noor, SMN, and Davies, SJ (2009) The contribution of drought tolerance, pests, and competition in shaping species distributions along the Malay-Thai Peninsula. Association of Tropical Biology and Conservation Meeting, Marburg, Germany.
Baltzer, JL (2008) Determinants of geographic distributions in tropical trees: the role of drought tolerance. University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB.
Thomas, SC and Baltzer, JL (2007) Whole-plant light compensation points and the meaning and measurement of shade tolerance in tropical trees. Association of Tropical Biology and Conservation Annual Meeting, Morelia, Mexico.
Baltzer, JL (2006) Determinants of geographic distributions in tropical trees: comparisons between everwet and seasonal forests in Malaysia and Thailand. National University of Singapore, Singapore.
Baltzer, JL (2006) Physiological mechanisms underlying species habitat associations in a Bornean rainforest. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Baltzer, JL (2006) Physiological resource requirements as predictors of tree species distributions at different spatial scales. Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB.
Baltzer JL, Thomas SC, Nilus R (2003) Resource-use efficiency as a partial explanation for habitat associations in tropical trees. British Ecological Society/Association of Tropical Biologists joint meeting, University of Aberdeen, Scotland, July 7-10, 2003
Baltzer, JL, McManus, A, Quinton, WL (2016) Galling mites contribute to ecosystem protection of permafrost in a boreal peatland. Canadian Society for Ecology and Evolution Annual General Meeting. St. John’s, NL.
Baltzer, JL, Day, N, Walker, X, White, A, Turetsky, M, Mack, M, Carriere, S, Johnstone, J (2016) The role of fire severity in post-fire successional dynamics in the southern Northwest Territories. Canadian Society for Ecology and Evolution Annual General Meeting. St. John’s, NL.
Sonnentag O, Helbig M, Payette F, Wischnewski K, Kljun N, Chasmer L, Pappas C, Detto M, Baltzer J, Quinton WL, Marsh P (2016) Permafrost thaw and fire history: implications of boreal tree cover changes on land surface characteristics and turbulent energy fluxes in the Taiga Plains, Canada. European Geophysical Union General Assembly 2016, Vienna, Austria.
Day, ND, Dunfield, KE, Baltzer, JL (2016) Heat-resistant fungi in post-fire boreal forests. 32nd Annual Great Lakes Mycology Meeting. **Awarded best postdoctoral talk at the meeting. Queen’s University Biological Research Station, ON
Sonnentag, O, Helbig, M, Payette, F, Wischnewski, K, Kljun, N, Chasmer, L, Pappas, C, Detto, M, Baltzer, J, Quinton, W, Marsh, P (2016) Permafrost thaw and fire history: implications of boreal tree cover changes on land surface characteristics and turbulent energy fluxes in the Taiga Plains, Canada. European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016.
Warren, R, Sonnetag, O, Berg, A, Quinton, W, and Baltzer, J (2016) Partitioning evapotranspiration in a subarctic peatland based on ecosystem-level eddy covariance and sap flow measurements. McGill University Peatland Meeting, Montreal, QC.
Paul J, Kokelj, S, Baltzer J (2015) Relationship between forest structure and near-surface ground ice conditions, Great Slave region, NWT. ArcticNet Annual Scientific Meeting, Vancouver, BC.
Wallace, CA, Baltzer JL (2015) What’s in a patch? Variation in abiotic conditions between open tundra and Alnus viridis shrub patches. ArcticNet Annual Scientific Meeting, Vancouver, BC.
Paul J, Kokelj, S, Baltzer J (2015) Relationship between forest structure and near-surface ground ice conditions, Great Slave region, NWT. 43rd Annual Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, Yellowknife, NT.
Sniderhan, AE and Baltzer JL (2015) The ‘browning’ of black spruce: changes in growth dynamics within a discontinuous permafrost peatland. CSEE 15th Annual Meeting. Saskatoon, SK.
McNickle GG, Lamb EG, Lavender M, Cahill JFJ, Schamp B, and Baltzer JL (2015) The species interactions that structure communities are not detectable at all spatial scales. Canadian Society of Ecology and Evolution 15th Annual Meeting. Saskatoon, SK.
Wallace CA, Robertson C, Marsh P, and Baltzer JL (2015) Patch patterns: Drivers of a low-arctic shrub mosaic. Canadian Society of Ecology and Evolution 15th Annual Meeting. Saskatoon, SK.
McManus, A, Quinton, W, Baltzer, J (2015) ‘Mite’ be a problem? Implications of galling herbivory on ground thaw through shrub-soil heat transfers in Canada’s northern boreal forest. AGU-CGU Joint Assembly, Montreal, QC.
Warren, R, Berg, A, Quinton, W and Baltzer, J (2015) Black Spruce water use response to water deficits on a permafrost peat plateau. CGU-AGU Joint Assembly, Montreal, QC.
Quinton, W, Baltzer, J, Berg, A, Braverman, M, Chasmer, L, Connon, R, Craig, J, McManus, A, Sonnentag, O (2015) Multi-scale hydrological studies in thawing permafrost terrain: some insights for modelling. CGU-AGU Joint Assembly, Montreal, QC
McNickle, GG, Gonzalez-Meler, MA, Lynch, D, Baltzer, JL, and Brown, JS (2014) A game theoretic model of competition among plants predicts the global distribution of biomes. Genomes to Biomes, Joint Conference of the CSEE, CSZ and SCL, Montreal, QC.
Sniderhan, A and Baltzer, J (2014) The life and times of black spruce: tree ring studies in the warming north. Genomes to Biomes, Joint Conference of the CSEE, CSZ and SCL, Montreal, QC.
Dietz, S, Samis, K, Frego, K, Baltzer, J (2014) The genetic structure and phylogeography of White Mountain Avens (Dryas integrifolia) in eastern Canada from New Brunswick to Labrador. Genomes to Biomes, Joint Conference of the CSEE, CSZ and SCL, Montreal, QC.
Fafard, M, Quinton, W, Baltzer, J (2013) Successional processes in subarctic wetlands influenced by permafrost thaw. Faster, Higher, More? Past, Present and Future Dynamics of Alpine and Arctic Flora Under Climate Change. Kurhaus Bergun, Grisons, Switzerland.
Baltzer, JL, Patankar, R, Downey, A, and Quinton, WL (2013) Impacts of seasonal thaw and permafrost degradation on Picea mariana root function in a subarctic boreal peatland. 9th International Workshop on Sap Flow, Ghent, Belgium.
Connon, R, Baltzer, J, Craig, J, Hayashi, M, and Quinton, WL (2013) Rising stream flows in the lower Liard River valley, NWT, Canada: examining potential causes. 2013 Joint Scientific Congress of CMOS, CGU, & CWRA, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
Merchant, MA, Warren, R, Berg, A, Baltzer, J, and Patankar, R (2013) Characterizing soil moisture spatial and temporal variability in the wetland dominated boreal region of Scotty Creek, Northwest Territories. 2013 Joint Scientific Congress of CMOS, CGU, & CWRA, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
Chasmer, L, Quinton, W, Hopkinson, C, Veness, T, and Baltzer, J (2013) Quantifying land cover classification sensitivity to shape, structure, and form within the discontinuous permafrost zone, NWT: Importance to hydrological model parameterization. 2013 Joint Scientific Congress of CMOS, CGU, & CWRA, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
Sonnentag O, Baltzer JL, Chasmer L, Detto M, Marsh P, and Quinton W (2012) Influence of increasing active layer depth and continued permafrost degradation on carbon, water and energy fluxes over two contrasting, ofrested permafrost landscapes in the Taiga Plains, Northwest Territories, Canada. American Geophysical Union Annual Meeting, San Fransisco, USA.
Patankar, R, Baltzer, J, Starr, G, Mortazavi, B, and Oberbauer, SF (2012). The impacts of gall-inducing arthropods in subarctic forest and arctic tundra ecosystems. 6th International Canopy Conference. Oaxaca, Mexico
Fafard, M and Baltzer, JL (2012) Climate change and permafrost thaw in a boreal forest: impacts on ground vegetation. Canadian Society for Plant Biologists Eastern Regional Meeting. Waterloo, ON.
Baltzer, J, Quinton, W, and Chasmer, L (2012) Permafrost thaw as a mechanism for widespread boreal forest loss. Ecological Society of America 2012 Annual Meeting, Portland, OR, USA.
Baltzer JL, Davies SJ, Bunyavejchewin S and Noor SMN (2008) Determinants of geographic distributions in tropical trees: Physiological and morphological traits determine response to rainfall seasonality on the Malay-Thai Peninsula. British Ecological Society 2008 Annual Meeting, London, UK, September 3-5, 2008.
Baltzer JL, Davies SJ, Bunyavejchewin S, Kassim AR and Noor SMN (2006) Determinants of geographic distributions in tropical trees: Comparisons between everwet and seasonal forests in Malaysia and Thailand. Ecological Society of America meeting. Memphis Tennessee, USA, August 7-10, 2006.
Robinson D, Dent D, Burslem DFRP, Nilus R, Baltzer J and Eichhorn M (2005) Does the global leaf economics spectrum exist at local scales and does it relate to fitness? British Ecological Society meeting. Hatfield, UK, September 5-7, 2005.
Baltzer JL and Thomas SC (2004) Physiological mechanisms underlying habitat associations in a Bornean rain forest. Ecological Society of America meeting, Portland, OR, August 1-6, 2004.
Stewart D, Baltzer J and vanderKloet S (2000) Does Symphysia belong in Vaccinium? Phylogeny Reconstruction and Systematics Poster Session, Joint meetings of the Society of Systematic Biologists, Society for the Study of Evolution, and the American Society of Naturalists. Indiana University, Bloomington, IN., June 23-27, 2000.